Nitāi: “Maitreya said: When Kardama left for the forest, Lord Kapila stayed on the strand of the Bindu-sarovara in order to please His mother, Devahūti.”
pitari prasthite ‘raṇyaṁ
tasmin bindusare ‘vātsīd
bhagavān kapilaḥ kila
So father… What is the name?
Nitāi: Kardama Muni?
Prabhupāda: Kardama Muni. Kardama Muni left home. So Kardama Muni was a great yogi. So he was not interested family life, but once he desired that “Let me marry.” So Vaivasvata Manu, he brought his daughter Devahūti, and she was married with Kapila, er yes…
Prabhupāda: Kardama Muni. So Kardama Muni, the wife, a king’s daughter, but she was serving the husband, and… The yogi, in a cottage he was living, and she was king’s daughter, princess. So working, working, she became very skinny. So Kardama Muni took (com)passion upon her that “This girl has come to me. She is not in a comfortable position.” So by his yogic power, he created big palatial house, many servants, maidservants, garden, everything. Not only that. Kardama Muni created one airship. It was just like a small city. The modern airship—they have prepared 747—can carry about five hundred passengers. Of course, very big. But Kardama Muni created an airship just like a small city. In that airship there was nice lake and palaces and garden, and not only that, the airship traveled all over the universe. They could not make any airship to go to the moon planet. But Kardama Muni, by his yogic power, he created an airship which could go to all the planets. This is yogic power. Aṇimā laghimā prāpti. All kinds of siddhi, material siddhi. Whatever he likes, he can do. That is yoga-siddhi. Not simply pressing the nose and making some gymnastic. One must gain the yogic siddhi. By the, by the siddhi-yogī, he can do everything he likes. He can become smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest. Whatever he likes he can get immediately in hand. Wherever he likes, he can go. That is yoga-siddhi.
So this Kardama Muni was a siddhi-yogī, and his wife, Devahūti… So he had nine daughters, and they were all distributed to the Prajāpatis. Just like Dakṣa Mahārāja, Prajāpati, and there were many others. And the only son was this Kapiladeva. He is incarnation of God, Kṛṣṇa. And He is one of the mahājanas. Mahājana means authority. There are twelve authorities according to Vedic śāstra. One of them is this Kapila.
svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ
kumāraḥ kapilo manuḥ
prahlādo janako bhīṣmo
balir vaiyāsakir vayam
This is a statement of Yamarāja. Yamarāja is also one of the authorities. So Svayambhū. Svayambhū means Brahmā. And svayambhūr nāradaḥ. Nārada Muni, he’s also authority. And Śambhu, Lord Śiva, he’s authority. Similarly, Kapiladeva, He’s also authority. These authorities should be followed. If we want to approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and if we want to understand what is the purpose of religious life, then we have to follow these mahājanas. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. Dharmasya tattvaṁ nihitaṁ guhāyāṁ mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ. Dharmasya tattvam.
So dharmasya tattvam is explained by the Dharmasetu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa; sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. That is actually dharma. And all these mahājanas—svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kapilaḥ [SB 6.3.20]—they also follow the same principle. Therefore we cannot understand very easily what is the truth of religious system, but if we follow these mahājanas, then we can understand. So that Kapila Muni is explaining to His mother the glories of devotional service. So if we follow Him, then we also get informed what is the truth of devotional service. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. Here another feature is that pitari prasthite araṇyam. So it is the system of varṇāśrama-dharma, pañcāśordhvaṁ vanaṁ vrajet. One who has passed over fifty years of age, he must give, leave home, and go to the forest, and completely devote his life for spiritual realization. That is the system, varṇāśrama-dharma. The name “Hindu” is a foreign name, given by the Muslims on the other side of the ocean. They used to say the inhabitants of this part of the world as “Hindu.” Actually, you won’t find this word Hindu in any Vedic literature. The Vedic literature you’ll find: varṇāśrama-dharma. Civilized human being means who are following strictly the varṇāśrama institution, four varṇas and four āśramas. So four varṇas means brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, and four āśrama means brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. So for brāhmaṇas, the four āśramas should be followed. Brāhmaṇa should become a child born in brāhmaṇa family and trained up nicely as brahmacārī. Then he becomes a gṛhastha. Then he gives up the home. That is called vānaprastha. And after that he takes sannyāsa.
So this Kardama Muni did it. Because he was a yogi, he strictly followed the principle. So as soon as Kapiladeva was grown up, the mother, Devahūti, was given in His charge and Kardama Muni left home. Therefore it is said that pitari prasthite araṇyaṁ mātuḥ priya-cikīrṣayā. Now it is the duty of the son. Women should be under the protection. In the Manu-saṁhitā it is said that woman should not be given freedom. Na strī svātantryam arhati. They cannot properly utilize freedom. It is better to remain dependent. That is very good. Independent woman cannot be happy. That’s a fact. We have seen in the Western countries, on, in the name of independence, so many women are unhappy. So that is not recommended in the Vedic civilization and on the varṇāśrama-dharma. So therefore the mother, Devahūti, was given under the charge of his (her) grown-up son, Kapiladeva. And Kapiladeva was fully cognizant that He has to take care of His mother. Therefore mātuḥ priya-cikīrṣayā. It is the duty of the father to protect the girl very nicely. Women are very delicate. They should be given… So during childhood, until she attains, I mean to say, youthhood, puberty, the girl is under the protection of the father. Still, in India, the father takes care of the girl until she is married to a suitable boy, the father takes. And then the young husband takes care of the young girl, wife, and then some children are born, and then grown up. Suppose a man marries at the age of twenty… That is, I mean, the highest. A boy is married not later than twenty-five years. And the girl is not, married not later than sixteen years. That is the system. So a sixteen-year girl and twenty-five-year boy, if the child is born, then when the man if fifty years old, the child becomes twenty-five years old. So he can take charge.
So taking this calculation, even Kapiladeva was twenty-five years old, He was quite able to take charge of His mother Devahūti. So He knew that “Father left My mother in My charge, and therefore I must take charge of My mother and keep her always pleased.” Mātuḥ priya-cikīrṣayā. This… The boy is not irresponsible. He is always ready to please His mother. Here we have given these pictures in this Bhāgavatam. Here Kapiladeva in a brahmacārī dress, and mother is taking lesson from the son. Now, sometimes it is asked, “How the mother will take lesson from the son?” That is the prerogative of the male. Strī… In the Bhagavad-gītā it is also said, māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye ‘pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ [Bg. 9.32], striyaḥ… Striyaḥ śūdrās tathā vaiśyāḥ. A woman is considered in the level of śūdra. Although a woman is married with a brāhmaṇa, the woman is not offered the sacred thread. And in the Bhagavad-gītā it is also accepted like that by the Supreme Personality… Striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrāḥ. And another place it is said that Mahābhārata was compiled by Vyāsadeva because the direct Vedic knowledge is not understandable… Strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnāṁ trayī na śruti-gocarā [SB 1.4.25]. Trayī means Vedic literature. They cannot understand. Strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnām: women, and the śūdras, and dvija-bandhu. Dvija-bandhu means born in a brāhmaṇa family, but not qualified as brāhmaṇa. They are called not brāhmaṇa. They are called dvija-bandhu.
So this Mahābhārata was made by Vyāsadeva for these strī-śūdra-divja-bandhūnām. Therefore Mahābhārata is called “Fifth Vedas.” There are four Vedas, Sāma, Yajuḥ, Ṛk, Atharva, and Mahābhārata is the fifth Veda. And the essence of Vedic knowledge is given within the Mahābhārata, this Bhagavad-gītā. So although woman is inferior than the man, still, the Vedic civilization is so perfect that the man, as father, as husband, or as son, takes care, full care of the woman. This is Vedic civilization. Therefore it is said that mātuḥ priya-cikīrṣayā. The son was ready always to see that “Mother is not unhappy. My father has gone away. So she may not feel the absence of my father.” This very word is very significant, mātuḥ priya-cikīrṣayā. He was always ready to take care of the mother. And the best care is to give her knowledge. Because women are supposed to be less intelligent; therefore they should be given knowledge. And they should also follow. They should follow the father’s instruction, they should follow the husband’s instruction, they should follow grown-up, learned, scholar like Kapiladeva. Then their life is perfect. Dependent, remain dependent.
Tasmin bindu-sarovare avātsīt. They lived there in the Bindu, on the bank of the Bindu-sarovara, lake. Avātsīd bhagavān kapilaḥ. Now, Kapiladeva is Bhagavān. There is another Kapiladeva, Kapila Ṛṣi. He is atheist. But here, this Kapiladeva is authority and Bhagavān, incarnation of Kṛṣṇa, Bhagavān. Most powerful. Bhagavān means most powerful, all-powerful.
vīryasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ
ṣaṇṇāṁ bhaga itīṅganā
(Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.47)
Bhagavān, all-powerful means that aiśvaryasya, all opulence, all wealth, all reputation, all knowledge, all beauty, all renunciation. In this way, Bhagavān is opulent. Six opulences. And these six opulences is fully represented in Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is accepted: kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. And others, they are expansion or incarnation. Viṣṇu-tattva. In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the Gosvāmīs, they have analyzed the characteristics of Bhagavān. The first Bhagavān is Lord Brahmā. Lord… Not first… First Bhagavān is Kṛṣṇa, but the Bhagavān realization, the opulences realization, begins from Lord Brahmā. He is jīva-tattva. Jīva-tattva means he’s ordinary living being like us. If you become powerful in spiritual strength, then you can also have the post of Lord Brahmā. And better than Lord Brahmā is Lord Śiva. And better than Lord Śiva is Viṣṇu, or Lord Nārāyaṇa. And the best of all of them is Kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. That is the analysis of the Vedic śāstra. So all śāstras accept… the Brahma-saṁhitā and, I mean to say, other, all śāstras… Kṛṣṇas tu… Even Śaṅkarācārya accepts. Sa bhagavān svayaṁ kṛṣṇaḥ. Śaṅkarācārya. He… These Māyāvādī philosophers, impersonalists, he also accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And all the ācāryas-Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, Viṣṇu Svāmī, Nimbārka, and lately, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu—all accept kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam.
So Kapiladeva is incarnation, and He instructed His mother Devahūti. Therefore to distinguish two Kapilas… One Kapila is the atheist Kapila, and the other Kapila is Bhagavān Kapila. Therefore Bhagavān Kapila is known as Devahūti-putra Kapila. Both of them expounded the Sāṅkhya philosophy, but the atheist Kapila expounded without understanding or without perception or realization of God, and here, Kapiladeva, He’s expounding Sāṅkhya philosophy to His mother personally. Just like Kṛṣṇa personally expounded the knowledge of Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna, His friend, similarly, Kapiladeva, Bhagavān, He expounded the Sāṅkhya philosophy to His mother, Devahūti, and that we are explaining.
So next verse is:
tam āsīnam akarmāṇaṁ
sva-sutaṁ devahūty āha
dhātuḥ saṁsmaratī vacaḥ
So this philosophy, we’ll begin from the next verse, and we shall be… [break] …of understanding Kṛṣṇa. Because Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa’s name is identical… [break] We should always remember this, that you cannot chant and dance with any material name. Because Kṛṣṇa’s name is spiritual, He’s Kṛṣṇa, therefore if you go on chanting for twenty-four hours, you’ll never feel tired. That is the advancement. So, so here, Kapiladeva… This is tattva-jñāna. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā,
kaścid yatati siddhaye
yatatām api siddhānāṁ
kaścin māṁ vetti tattvataḥ
Just like these Māyāvādīs, they cannot understand that this chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa name is actually getting direct association with Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī in Benares, He considered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as a crazy fellow. Crazy fellow. Why? Now, because He was sannyāsī, and He was not reading Vedānta-sūtra. He was simply chanting and dancing. So some devotee of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very much praised Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at the, in the presence of Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, and Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī became very angry, “Ah, don’t talk of this rascal sannyāsī. He is a sannyāsī, He does not read Vedānta-sūtra, and in sentimental moods He chants and dances. Don’t talk about Him. Better don’t go there.” So that devotee became very sorry, and he arranged a meeting between this Māyāvādī sannyāsī and Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Then, in the meeting… Caitanya Mahāprabhu was beautiful, very beautiful in His bodily features. So… It is summary I am speaking. So the Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī inquired from Him that “You are a sannyāsī. You do not engage Yourself in studying Vedānta-sūtra, but in sentiment, with some foolish devotees, You some chant and dance. What is this?” So Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “My dear sir, My Guru Mahārāja saw Me a great fool number one.” Guru more mūrkha dekhi’ karila śāsana [Cc. Ādi 7.71]. “Therefore He has chastised Me.” “What is that?” ” ‘You don’t read Vedānta-sūtra. You chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra.’ He has ordered Me like that. Because I am a fool, I have no knowledge; therefore he has given Me this engagement, chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. So I am chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, and I do not know. I become mad after chanting. And I get, I feel transcendental pleasure. And sometimes I act like a madman. So My Guru Mahārāja has said that ‘You are very fortunate. You are very fortunate.’ ” Then Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī very mildly said, “It is all right, You’re chanting. What is the wrong if You study Vedānta-sūtra?” Then Caitanya Mahāprabhu said that “Vedānta-sūtra We know, but not like you. We know. If you don’t mind, then I can explain Vedānta-sūtra.” So He explained Vedānta-sūtra that Brahman, Brahman means “the biggest.” So Brahman is ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇa, biggest, means He’s full of all opulences. That is biggest. He’s the richest. He’s the wisest. He’s the most beautiful. He’s most famous. And… In this way He explained that Brahman, the biggest, He cannot be impersonal. He’s personal. He gave many instances from Vedic literature. In this way, He convinced that “The way you study Vedānta-sūtra, that is not the proper way. Vedānta-sūtra means to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa.”
As Kṛṣṇa says, vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. By the study of Vedas, if you have attained perfection, then you should know what is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa also said. Yatatām api siddhānām [Bg. 7.3]. Siddha means those who are liberated. Liberated means those who have no more the bodily concept of life. They are called liberated, brahma-bhūta [SB 4.30.20]. Prasannātmā. So long one is in the bodily concept of life, he’s conditioned. He’s conditioned. He’s conditioned; he’s not liberated. And when one understands fully that he’s not this body, he’s pure soul, bhāgavata, when he realizes, then that stage is called liberated. So liberated stage is not final. If you simply understand that you are not this body, you are a spirit soul, that is not sufficient. You must act as Brahman. You must act as Brahman. Then you will stay.
na śocati na kāṅkṣati
samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu
mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām
So bhakti is attainable for the liberated person. Bhakti is not for the conditioned soul. Bhakti is for persons who are already liberated. How it is possible? Yes, it is possible. Kṛṣṇa says,
māṁ ca yo ‘vyabhicāreṇa
sa guṇān samatītyaitān
If you engage yourself in devotional service,
śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
Tan manye adhītam uttamam. One who is engaged in these nine different processes of devotional service… The first beginning is śravaṇam, hearing. So under the direction of the spiritual master and the śāstras, immediately he is liberated person. He doesn’t require to make separate endeavor for becoming liberated. Because immediately he engages himself in devotional… Māṁ ca yo ‘vyabhicāreṇa [Bg. 14.26]. Avyabhicāreṇa, unfailing. Strictly. Dṛḍha-vrata. Satataṁ kīrtayanto māṁ yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ [Bg. 9.14]. Dṛḍha-vrata, firm conviction that “I am engaged in Kṛṣṇa’s service. I am now free from all material contamination.” Dṛḍha-vrata.
So one has to do it. This is tattva-jñāna. Tattva-jñāna. Here it is said, tattva-mārga-agra-darśanam. This is tattva-jñāna. of course, as it is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate [SB 1.2.11]. The Absolute Truth are differently understood according to the different position of the student. The Absolute Truth… Some of them understand that Absolute Truth as impersonal Brahman. And some of them understand the Absolute Truth as localized Paramātmā. And some of them understand the Absolute Truth as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, or Viṣṇu. They are not different. Brahman, Paramātmā and the Supreme Personality of Godhead—they are one. They are simply different phases. It is simply angle of vision. Just like a mountain from a very distant place, you’ll see just like hazy cloud. And if you come nearer, then you see something green, very high, raised, I mean to say, earth. That is one vision. But you are seeing the mountain. From the distant place you see it is hazy cloud. As you come nearer, you see something green. And if you actually enter the mountain you’ll find there are so many houses, so many trees, so many animals. The vision is the same mountain. But on account of my different position, I see hazy cloud or something green or something animated. But the final stage is the varieties. A mountain, there are so many trees, so many animals, so many men, so many houses—varieties.
So the Absolute Truth is not without varieties. That is spiritual variety. That is not material variety. But the Māyāvādīs, they think that… Because they are seeing the Absolute Truth from distant place, far away, they think that in the Absolute Truth there is no variety. As soon as there are varieties, it is material. That is their misunderstanding. No. The Absolute Truth is described in the Brahma-saṁhitā:
lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
There are, in the spiritual world, there are Vaikuṇṭhalokas. There are inhabitants, the devotees. They’re all liberated persons. They’re akṣara. They do not fall down. Kṣara akṣara. We are kṣaras. We have fallen down in this material world. But there are devotees in the spiritual world, in the Vaikuṇṭhaloka, they never come down. Never come down in this material world, but they are also persons like us, but eternal persons, with full knowledge and life of blissfulness. That is the difference between them and us.
So that is tattva-jñāna. Unless we understand the varieties of the Absolute Truth, if we simply stick to the indefinite, impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth, then there is chance of falling down. Generally, they fall down. Āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ patanty adhaḥ anādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ [SB 10.2.32]. Because they are not allowed to enter into the Vaikuṇṭha planets, they simply remaining in the Brahman effulgence, and that does not stay. They fall down. Again they come down in these material varieties. We have seen many, many sannyāsīs. They first of all give up… Brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā: “The jagat is mithyā.” And ahaṁ brahmāsmi: “I have no more anything to do. I have become Nārāyaṇa.” Then he comes down again to feed the daridra-nārāyaṇa. That’s all. He becomes Nārāyaṇa, but he comes to take activities in feeding… But why? It is mithyā. You have already left. Why do you come here again? That means he hasn’t got anything. The unnecessary labor… Āruhya kṛcchreṇa. They undergo severe penances and austerities, and they reach up to the impersonal Brahman, but because there is no pleasure… Suppose if I send you in a nice aeroplane in the sky… There is no varieties. Just like so many aeronautics. They, after flying in the impersonal sky, they become tired. And sometimes they pray to God, “Please let me go back to the land.” And I have read in the paper, when the Sputnik was carrying the Russian aeronautics, he was simply seeing down, “Where is Moscow?” (laughter) “Where is Moscow?” Because this impersonal traveling was very much agitating, he was finding out, “Where is Moscow?” So this kind of realization of the Absolute Truth will not stay, will have, will have to fall down. Exactly like that. The Russian aeronautics, without getting any shelter in the sky, he was simply hankering after Moscow. That my book, that Easy Journey to Other Planets… One gentleman, he became very much enthusiastic, that “Oh, we can go to the other planet?” And “Yes, you can go. Read this book.” “Then I shall come back again?” “And why you shall come back again? You shall remain there.” “No, no, no. I don’t want that. I don’t want that. I shall go and come back.”
So this is the, I mean, the mentality. Why this mentality? The mentality is that “Without varieties we cannot enjoy.” Variety is the mother of enjoyment. So the impersonal Brahman realization, or Paramātmā realization, does not give us steady ānanda. We want ānanda. Ānandamayo ‘bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). The living entity, or Brahman, or Parabrahman… Just like our Kṛṣṇa. He’s Parabrahman. He’s enjoying ānanda. Similarly, we also, being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, mamaivāṁśo jīva… [Bg. 15.7], we want ānanda. So ānanda cannot be in impersonalism, or voidism. That is not possible. Ānanda means varieties. When you get varieties of foodstuff, made of the same ingredient—same, I mean to say, grains, or milk and sugar—but we can prepare hundreds and thousands of preparations… At least, hundred preparations, and we enjoy: this is peṛā, this is baraphi, this is kṣīra, this is rābṛi, this is dahi, and so many things. So variety is required. Variety is required. So therefore the last word of tattva-jñāna is to understand Kṛṣṇa, who is full of variety.
So here Kapiladeva is tattva-mārga, tattva-mārga-agra-darśanam. So Kapiladeva is the incarnation of Supreme Personality of Godhead. He would explain to His mother. That we shall read from the next verse, what is tattva and how we can approach the tattva-jñāna and how we can enjoy. Not that simply dry speculation. Dry speculation. One, that professor, who has said, that “This Bhaktivedanta’s book is not dry speculation. Order all the books made by him.” So our, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not dry speculation. There are varieties, but they are spiritual varieties. People misunderstand that these varieties are material things. They want nirviśeṣa, nirākāra, void. But our philosophy is not voidness. It is full of varieties and full of transcendental bliss.
Thank you very much. (end)