Prabhupāda:

śaktyāveśāvatāra kṛṣṇera asaṅkhya gaṇana
dig-daraśana kari mukhya mukhya jana

Lord Caitanya says that incarnation of opulence… Śaktyāveśa avatāra means incarnation of opulence. We have analyzed the opulences of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So śaktyāveśa avatāra… An incarnation who represents a particular opulence of the Supreme Lord, he is called śaktyāveśa avatāra. So Lord Caitanya says that there are innumerable incarnations like that, of whom only the principal, I mean to say, principal incarnations, they are mentioned herein. And who are they?

‘sanakādi’, ‘nārada’, ‘pṛthu’, ‘paraśurāma’,
jīva-rūpa ‘brahmāra’ āveśāvatāra-nāma

Jīva-rūpa ‘brahmāra’ āveśa. Brahma, the first creature of this universe, he’s also considered as one of the śaktyāveśa avatāras.

Now, so far our experience is concerned, Lord Caitanya says there are innumerable. So how we can accept a avatāra, a śaktyāveśa avatāra, whose names are not mentioned herein? Then we have to… As in the beginning, Lord Caitanya says that by the symptoms we can understand that He is śaktyāveśa. By the symptoms and activities and influence. So what is that symptom? Symptom is that eternal and temporary. So avatāra, incarnation, comes to glorify the eternal existence of the Supreme Lord. So any avatāra, any incarnation, he comes to glorify that “There is spiritual kingdom, there is God, and I have come to reclaim you to back to Godhead, back to home.” This is the symptom. So therefore, by that symptom, we accept Lord Jesus Christ as śaktyāveśa avatāra, or Hazrat Muhammad, he’s also. Because these two religious leaders of the world, they preached about the glorification of the Supreme Lord. And they sacrificed everything for preaching the glories of the Lord. Therefore… And their influence and their followers, there are… These are the symptoms by which we can understand that Jesus Christ and Hazrat Muhammad was, were śaktyāveśa avatāras.

So far Buddha is concerned, he’s also considered śaktyāveśa avatāra. He preached this nirvāṇa philosophy. Although he did not speak about God, because it is considered that he was himself God, but the people amongst whom he preached, they were mostly atheistic people; therefore he did not preach about God. But he did not deny also. He simply wanted to make extinction of this present worldly activities. That was, yes… Nirvāṇa. And he represented the sacrifice of renouncement. He…, you may remember that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, out of His six opulences, one opulence is renouncement. So Lord Buddha’s life is renouncement. He was prince. He, he was in a very young time. He renounced the world and underwent severe penances. These are the symptoms by which we can understand that he’s also śaktyāveśa avatāra. And the Bhagavad-gītā you’ll find, yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ mama tejo-‘ṁśa-sambhavam. Anyone, not only Lord Buddha or others, but anyone, Lord, in the Bhagavad-gītā it is stated, anyone who has got some extraordinary power, uncommon power, he’s to be considered vibhu. Śaktyāveśa avatāra, there are two kinds, one directly empowered for particular mission, comes from the transcendental spiritual sky, and others, those who are in this material world, but they have got some specific power, uncommon power, not found in ordinary man. They are called vibhūti. This vibhūti (is) explained in the Bhagavad-gītā: yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ mama tejo-‘ṁśa sambhavam. That is out of the opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

sanakādye ‘jñāna’-śakti, nārade śakti ‘bhakti’
brahmāya ‘sṛṣṭi’-śakti, anante ‘bhū-dhāraṇa’-śakti

Now, so far the principal śaktyāveśa avatāras are concerned, as mentioned by Lord Caitanya, now, what are the manifestation of opulences in each of these śaktyāveśa avatāras? He says that sanakādye, the Kumāras, the four Kumāras-Sanaka, Sanātana, Sananda, Sanat-kumāra—these four Kumāras, they were vastly learned, and they…, first they preached the philosophical way of understanding the Absolute Truth. Sanakādye. Later on, they become devoted, devotees, and they have got a sampradāya, or party, they are called Nimbārka-sampradāya. Sanakādye ‘jñāna’-śakti. Now we have analyzed that the Supreme Lord has the opulence of knowledge, full knowledge. So these four Kumāras-kumāras means unmarried brahmacārīs—they were sons of Brahmā. Because in the beginning Brahmā begot so many sons, and each of them were asked to increase the population. Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana, they were also requested by their father to increase population, but they refused. They said, “No, we are not going to be entangled in these material affairs. We shall remain kumāras, brahmacārī, and preach the glories of God,” by which Brahmā was angry. And while he was angry, from his anger Rudra, Śiva, was produced, and Lord Śiva is therefore supposed to be son of Brahmā.

So these four Kumāras, they represented the knowledge opulence of the Supreme Lord. Nārada, Nārada, he’s also śaktyāveśa avatāra. He was, in his previous life, he was a maidservant’s son, but by the association of devotees, he rose up to this position, Nārada. Nārada’s position is very exalted as devotee. All of the devotees of the, in this material world, more or less, they are all disciples of Nārada. Vyāsadeva is also a disciple of Nārada. Prahlāda Mahārāja—these are big devotees—he’s…, he was also a disciple of Nārada. And Dhruva Mahārāja, he was also disciple of Nārada. Vālmīki, he was also disciple of Nārada. So Nārada is the representation of the devotional path of opulence. Brahmāya ‘sṛṣṭi’-śakti. And the creative opulence was manifested in Brahmā. Creative.

Anante ‘bhū-dhāraṇa’. Ananta, Śeṣaśāyī, what is known as law of gravitation, that is mentioned in the Vedic scriptures as sankarasa, who is supposed to be supporting all these planets in the air. ‘Bhu-dhāraṇa’-śakti. ‘Bhu-dhāraṇa’-śakti means all the planets are supported by Śeṣaśāyī. It is described in the Vedic literature that He has got many hoods, just like serpent has got hood. And each hood, each planet, all these planets are resting.

śeṣe ‘sva-sevana’-śakti, pṛthute pālana’
paraśurāme ‘duṣṭa-nāśaka-vīrya-sañcāraṇa’

Śeṣe, Śeṣa-avatāra, He is personally serving the Supreme Lord as Mahā Viṣṇu, Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. You have seen the picture that Viṣṇu is lying on a serpent bed. That serpent bed is supposed to be Śeṣa-avatāra. And pṛthute, Mahārāja, King Pṛthu, he was ideal king. Therefore ‘pālana’, God has another opulence: maintenance. Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. That Supreme One is maintaining so many, innumerable eternals. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eka bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). So this maintenance performance, opulence, was invested to Pṛthu Mahārāja. He exhibited extraordinary power, how to maintain the citizens, as king and subjects. Paraśurāme ‘duṣṭa-nāśaka-vīrya-sañcāraṇa’ Paraśurāma… Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. Under two, these two missions, the Lord comes, incarnates, descends. And Paraśurāma was supposed to kill the duṣṭa, the wicked kṣatriyas, when they forgot to rule over the world as bona fide kṣatriyas. They…, they…, they were killed twenty-one times, and it is mentioned in the Mahābhārata during that killing process, many kṣatriyas fled from, fled away from India and they settled in other parts of the world, especially in Europe. It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata. So Paraśurāma was especially meant, vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām, to kill the miscreants.

So,

jñāna-śakty-ādi-kalayā
yatrāviṣṭo janārdanaḥ
ta āveśā nigadyante
jīvā eva mahattamāḥ

Another definition is given by Sanātana Gosvāmī. This same Sanātana Gosvāmī who is now being taught by Lord Caitanya, he also has written many books. These two brothers, Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, and their nephew, Jīva Gosvāmī, composed many valuable literatures. So Sanātana Gosvāmī has written one book, Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛtam. Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛtam, supplementary to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. So in that Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛtam book, he has written,

jñāna-śaktya-ādi-kalayā
yatrāviṣṭo janārdanaḥ
ta āveśā nigadyante
jīvā eva mahattamāḥ

He has defined that these śaktyāveśa avatāra, they are all living entities; they are not on the level of Viṣṇu-tattva. But they have special power and special, I mean to say, opulence to glorify the Supreme Lord.

‘vibhūti’ kahiye yaiche gītā-ekādaśe
jagat vyāpila kṛṣṇa-śakty-ābhāsāveśe

Now that vibhūti is, is mentioned by Lord Caitanya. That vibhūtimat sattvam, śaktyāveśa, there are many, many… We find in the history so many extraordinary, powerful men come and go. They are called vibhūti of the Supreme Lord.

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ
śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ
mama tejo-‘ṁśa-sambhavam

Anyone extraordinary. You’ll be, I mean to…, pleased to learn that in India, the king is considered vibhūtimat sattvam. King. He is also considered as the incarnation of God, king. Because when Sanātana, this Sanātana Gosvāmī, when he resigned from government service… So, when the King, Nawab Shah, Nawab Hussain Shah, came to his house—”What is the matter that my minister Sanātana is not joining office? And he’s taking leave under so many pretexts?” So when he personally came to the house of Sanātana Gosvāmī… He was not at that time Gosvāmī. His name was Dabira Khāsa. Khāsa shah. So he was received very well, and when the Nawab Shah said… There was some topics, conversation with the minister and the Nawab. The minister wanted to resign, and Nawab Shah did not like that idea. So at last it was… Nawab Shah said that “If you whimsically, whimsically resign your responsible post, then I shall arrest you.” At this order, Sanātana Gosvāmī replied that “If you think I shall be punished, I shall accept it, because you are God’s representative. You are God’s representative.” So this was the idea of king and Nawab. Now, although he was Muhammadan and he was brāhmaṇa, but, so far the respect of a king is concerned, Sanātana Gosvāmī rightly told him that “You are Nawab. You are king. You are not ordinary man. Therefore you are empowered by the Supreme Lord. So anything you punish…” Because king’s punishment has to be accepted. And in the Manu-saṁhitā it is said that when king punishes a citizen, he is reduced in his sinful actions so that he may not subjected in his next birth for that sinful reaction if he undergoes the punishment of a king. These are stated there.

So, vibhūtimat…

atha vā bahunaitena
kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam
ekāṁśena sthito jagat
[Bg. 10.42]

So ekāṁśena, ekāṁśena, this partial, plenary representation of the Supreme Lord, Paramātmā, Viṣṇu, Mahā Viṣṇu, they are also parts and parcels. Viṣṇu parts. Svāṁśa. Viṣṇu, or the Supreme Lord, expands Himself in two ways. One way is Viṣṇu expansion, and the other way is the jīva, these living entities expansion. We are also expansions of the Supreme Lord. Eko bahu śyāma. He alone, He has become so many. And why? What is the purpose of becoming so many? The purpose is ānandamayo ‘bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). He wants to enjoy Himself with so many. So practically our creation is for enjoying in the company, in the association of the Supreme Lord. But we thought that it is better to become an imitation God and try to lord it over the material nature. That is not possible; therefore we are suffering.

eita kahiluṅ śakty-āveśa-avatāra
bālya-paugaṇḍa-dharmera śunaha vicāra

Now the Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is analyzing the characteristics of God, Kṛṣṇa. Now He has explained about His different incarnations. Now He says, about His ages, how the Lord is old. Lord never becomes old. Ādyaṁ purāṇa puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca [Bs. 5.33]. In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is stated that, although He’s the oldest personality, ādyam, because He’s the original person from whom everything has come out. Everything has generated. So we living entities, we are also sons and grandsons of that Supreme Personality of Godhead. So the Brahma-saṁhitā says although He’s the oldest person… In the Bhagavad-gītā He is stated by Arjuna as great-grandfather. Prapitāmahaś ca. You’ll find this word in the Bhagavad-gītā. Because Brahmā is addressed as pitāmaha, grandfather. He’s the original first creature in this material world, in this universe, and everyone has come from him. Therefore he is called pitāmaha. Pitāmaha means grandfather. And, because he’s born also of Viṣṇu, therefore Viṣṇu is prapitāmaha [Bg. 11.39].

So the Supreme Lord, Personality of Godhead, is the oldest of all, but whenever you’ll find, you’ll find just like a young man. Ādyaṁ purāṇa puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca [Bs. 5.33]. Nava-yauvanam means just a fresh youth. So that is being explained, explained by Lord Caitanya, the age of… This is another characteristics of God. Kiśora-śekhara-dharmī vrajendra-nandana. Kiśora-śekhara. Kiśora. Kiśora is… Kiśora age is called from eleven years to sixteen years. These teen years, or, in English, what is called? Adolescent? Yes. This, this age… So Kṛṣṇa represents Himself just like a boy from eleven to sixteen years old. Not more than that. Even in the Battle of Kurukṣetra, when He was great-grandfather, still, His feature was just like a young boy.

kiśora-śekhara-dharmī vrajendra-nandana
prakaṭa-līlā karibāre yabe kare mana

Prakaṭa-līlā. Prakaṭa-līlā means… Prakaṭa and aprakaṭa. Just like the sun, at night, we cannot see. This is called aprakaṭa. And when we can see, during daytime, that is called prakaṭa. Sun is already there, in the sky, but at night, by certain arrangement of the planetary system, we cannot see. That is called aprakaṭa. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is always there. So sometimes He is manifested within this material world; sometimes He is not manifested. So when He desires to manifest Himself in this material world, rather, when He descends, then He… Prakaṭa-līlā karibare yabe…

ādau prakaṭa karāya mātā-pitā-bhakta-gaṇe
pāche prakaṭa haya janmādika-līlā-krame

So before His coming, some of His devotees, they come first, just to become His father, become His mother, become His family members, like that. Because He does not do anything which is against the process of this world. A man is born out of his father and mother, so He has to take His birth from a father and mother. So these fathers and mothers were, are first sent. I think in the Bible they call messiahs, or what you have? Similarly, nobody can become the father and mother of God. But, when He manifests Himself in this material world, He shows that “He’s My father.” Just like Kṛṣṇa accepted father, Vasudeva, Vasudeva as His father and Devakī as His mother. Or His foster-father, Nanda Mahārāja, and His foster-mother, Yaśodā. So they are all devotees. Kṛṣṇa’s friend, Kṛṣṇa’s father, Kṛṣṇa’s everyone, when He displays Himself, they are all devotees. He’s the Supreme. Nobody can be father of Kṛṣṇa.

vayaso vividhatve ‘pi
sarva-bhakti-rasāśrayaḥ
dharmī kiśora evātra
nitya-līlā-vilāsavān

Nitya-līlā-vilāsavān means eternally He’s…, He’s manifesting His pastimes. Just like Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa-līlā, the manifestation of Kṛṣṇa and His different pastimes in this material world. In the…, on this earth was manifested, that thing is going on, nitya-līlā. As I have several times explained to you that the sun, sunrise and sunset, is going on every moment. Every moment. You inquire by, by communication you’ll find in some country, there is always sunrise and some country there is always… Any country, you’ll find. Similarly, kṛṣṇa-līlā, Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes, are going on in some of the universes, in any of… There are innumerable universes. In some of the universes He is there already.

pūtanā-vadhādi yata līlā kṣaṇe kṣaṇe
saba līlā nitya prakaṭa kare anukrame

From His childhood, just on the lap of His mother, He killed the demon Pūtanā. Similarly, such pastimes are going on every moment. Every moment. That is called nitya-līlā. In some of the universes… When the round (?) comes in this universe, it takes so many years. For millions and billions years. Just you can imagine how many millions and trillions of universes are there. Ananta brahmāṇḍa, tāra nāhika gaṇana. Ananta means innumerable universes are there. Nāhika gaṇana: nobody can count.

ananta brahmāṇḍa, tāra nāhika gaṇana
kona līlā kona brahmāṇḍe haya prakaṭana

Some of His pastimes is going on in either of the innumerable brahmāṇḍas.

ei-mata saba līlā-yena gaṅgā-dhāra
se-se līlā prakaṭa kare vrajendra-kumāra

Just like the waves of the Ganges going on, nobody can count. Similarly, all the incarnations of different pastimes in different universes, that is going on.

krame bālya-paugaṇḍa-kaiśoratā-prāpti
rāsa-ādi līlā kare, kaiśore nitya-sthiti

So kṛṣṇa-līlā means beginning from His childhood, up to the age of sixteenth year, when He performed the rāsa-līlā, this is actual kṛṣṇa-līlā. And beyond that līlā, when Kṛṣṇa left Vṛndāvana and came to Dvārakā, that is not kṛṣṇa-līlā; that is Vāsudeva līlā, Kṛṣṇa in His Vāsudeva feature, that līlā. It is stated that Kṛṣṇa never goes out of Goloka Vṛndāvana. When He goes, He goes in His Vāsudeva feature. Kṛṣṇa expands Himself—Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa. Therefore when this is described in the Vaiṣṇava literature, a great literary novelist, Bankimacandra Chatterji, he misunderstood that Kṛṣṇa of Vṛndāvana is different from the Kṛṣṇa of Kurukṣetra or Dvārakā. He has analyzed, Kṛṣṇa-caritra, character of Kṛṣṇa. But in everything, he has very much eulogized.

So we shall discuss tomorrow. Any questions? (end)

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