Prabhupāda:

matsya, kūrma, raghunātha, nṛsiṁha, vāmana
varāhādi-lekhā yāṅra nā yāya gaṇana

Now Lord Caitanya is describing about līlāvatāra. So they are some of the names of the līlāvatāra. There are innumerable līlāvatāra, but these are some of the names: Matsya, Kūrma, Raghunātha, Nṛsiṁha, Vāmana, Varāhādi. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam there is a verse in which some of the names of the līlāvatāra is mentioned:

matsyāśva-kacchapa-nṛsiṁha-varāha-haṁsa-
rājanya-vipra-vibudheṣu kṛtāvatāraḥ
tvaṁ pāsi nas tribhuvanaṁ ca tathādhuneśa
bhāraṁ bhuvo hara yadūttama vandanaṁ te

So all these incarnations, especially this līlāvatāra, līlā incarnation, they come, they descend on this material world, to settle up some disturbances by the demons. There are two classes of men in this world, the deva and the asura. Deva means those who are devotees, those who are conscious, Kṛṣṇa conscious, they are called deva, gods, demigods. And demigod does not mean that something extraordinary. They are also living entities like us, but they are completely Kṛṣṇa conscious, and therefore they have got unlimited power, and they are entrusted with some of the management of this material world. They are called deva. And the asuras, demons, atheists, they are not entrusted. They are simply meant for creating disturbances. So when the atheist class, the number of atheist class, increases, at that time it becomes intolerable for the devas and the gods to remain here because the asuras can create much disturbances. So at that time, indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge [SB 1.3.28]. Indrāri. Indra means the head of the demigods. When his enemies are increased and create disturbance, these līlāvatāras, they come. As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām: [Bg. 4.8] “Just to deliver the faithful and to annihilate the unfaithful,” yuge yuge sambhavāmi, “I come in every millennium.”

līlāvatārera kailuṅ dig-daraśana
guṇāvatārera ebe śuna vivaraṇa

Now Lord Caitanya says, “I have mentioned some of the līlāvatāra. Now, Sanātana, you just hear from Me about guṇāvatāra.” Guṇāvatāra means the incarnation of the material qualities. There are three qualities in the material world: goodness, passion and ignorance. So each quality is controlled by the Supreme Lord Himself by His expansion of different incarnation. Brahmā, viṣṇu, śiva—tina guṇa avatāra. Now on these three qualities, material modes of nature, the heads are Brahmā-Brahmā, the first living creature, Brahmā—and Viṣṇu—Viṣṇu, God Himself—and Śiva, Lord Śiva. Śiva’s position is between Brahmā and Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu is God, and Brahmā is living entity. Gradation. Living entities, they are also parts and parcels of God. Śiva is also part and parcel of God. Viṣṇu is also part and parcel of God. But there are degrees of power. That we have already discussed. Kṛṣṇa is cent percent, Viṣṇu is ninety-four percent, Śiva is eighty-four percent, and we living entities, we are seventy-eight percent. So tri-guṇa aṅgīkari’ kare sṛṣṭy-ādi-vyavahāra. They have nothing to do with these material modes of nature. Just like a person in charge of the criminal department or jail department, but we should not think that he is also one of the prisoners because he is in charge of the jail department. No. Similarly, Śiva, Lord Śiva, he is in charge of the modes of ignorance, but he is not ignorant. He is the most enlightened devotee of Lord. He has got a paramparā, disciplic succession, which is called Viṣṇu Svāmī-sampradāya. There are four sampradāyas of great devotees of Lord: one from Brahmā, one from Śiva, and one from Lakṣmī, and one from the Kumāras. So Lord Śiva, although he is in charge of the department of the modes of ignorance, but he is not ignorant. You should not mistake that. Similarly, Brahmā is also in charge of this passionate department, creative initiation. This, whatever we are creating, the creative incentive, that is from Brahmā, passion. And ignorance, they neither create… They simply destroy. And Viṣṇu, He has taken the charge of maintenance, because without God nobody can maintain us. Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: “One personality, one eternal personality, He maintains all other plural eternities.” We are also eternities, but we are maintained by Viṣṇu. Even Brahmā is also maintained by Viṣṇu, and Śiva is also maintained by Viṣṇu. So these are three qualitative incarnations: Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva.

bhakti-miśra-kṛta-puṇye kona jīvottama
rajo-guṇe vibhāvita kari’ tāṅra mana

Now, what is the constitution of Brahmā? Brahmā… Just there are so many innumerable living entities. If some of them, they are devotee, but they want to enjoy this material world… They want to enjoy. So they are devotee for taking some favor for God and want to enjoy this material world. He is called Brahmā. Brahmā’s constitutional position is that.

bhakti-miśra-kṛta-puṇye kona jīvottama
rajo-guṇe vibhāvita kari’ tāṅra mana
garbhodakaśāyi-dvārā śakti sañcāri’
vyaṣṭi sṛṣṭi kare kṛṣṇa brahmā-rūpa dhari’

Sometimes such pious living entities are not available, so sometimes Kṛṣṇa Himself becomes Brahmā and for maintenance, for creation…

bhāsvān yathāśma-sakaleṣu nijeṣu tejaḥ
svīyaṁ kiyat prakaṭayaty api tadvad atra
brahmā ya eṣa jagad-aṇḍa-vidhāna-kartā
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Now, Brahmā’s description is given here, that bhāsvān yathāśma-sakaleṣu nijeṣu tejaḥ. Just like valuable stone… The example is very nice, valuable stone, just like diamond. Diamond has got power to illuminate. And what is this diamond? The diamond is made by the interaction of sunshine. All these valuable stones, they are products of sunshine. So as the diamond has got power of shining power, it is derived from the sun, or diamond, the moon also, it derives power from the sun, similarly, Brahmā, although he is very powerful, he is known as creator of this universe, but he is just like diamond. He inherits power from the Supreme Lord, so he becomes powerful. Bhāsvān yathāśma-sakaleṣu nijeṣu tejaḥ. That is simply a bit of power. Just like a diamond, diamond also illuminating, but it is not original luminous. Original luminous is sun, and the illumination expanded by diamond is not so valuable as the sunshine. Similarly, Brahmā, although we see him so powerful, he has little power derived from the Supreme Lord. That is the example given here.

kona kalpe yadi yogya jīva nāhi pāya
āpane īśvara tabe aṁśe ‘brahmā’ haya

Kona kalpe. Kalpa means the duration of one creation. This material creation, bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19], it is created at a certain interval, and it stays for some time. Again it is annihilated. So again, at the time of creation, if somebody is not available, then the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, He becomes Brahmā Himself.

yasyāṅghri-paṅkaja-rajo ‘khila-loka-pālair
mauly-uttamair dhṛtam upāsita-tīrtha-tīrtham
brahmā bhavo ‘ham api yasya kalāḥ kalāyāḥ
śrīś codavahema ciram asya nṛpāsanaṁ kva

So,

nijāṁśa-kalāya kṛṣṇa tamo-guṇa aṅgīkari’
saṁhārārthe māyā-saṅge rudra-rūpa dhari

Similarly, sometimes, when Śiva is not available… Śiva is available. Nijāṁśa-kalāya kṛṣṇa tamo-guṇa aṅgīkari’. Now Kṛṣṇa, the Lord Himself, when He accepts the management of these modes of ignorance, He is called Śiva. So Śiva, Śiva is God, but because he is in the department of ignorance, therefore his name is Śiva. He makes śiva. Śiva, another meaning of śiva is “auspicious.” These inauspicious persons who are in ignorance, for them, Śiva worship, worship of Lord Śiva, is recommended so that gradually they come to the modes of passion and goodness, and then they are liberated. So nijāṁśa-kalāya kṛṣṇa tamo-guṇa aṅgīkari’, saṁhārārthe. But his business is destruction. When there is some destruction in this material world, you should know that is the action of Śiva. Perhaps you have seen one statue that is very popular, sold in antique shops-Naṭarāja, dancing and fire, all round there is fire. When Śiva begins to dance, his dance is very serious. As you dance, kṛṣṇa-kīrtana, so similarly Śiva also dances for annihilation. There is fire. By his dancing, there will be fire. Saṁhārārthe māyā-saṅge rudra-rūpa dhari. Māyā-saṅge. He has got connection with this material energy, and he is meant for destruction. Material energy is under the, I mean to say, control of this Śiva-rūpa of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore he is called father. He is called father, and the material energy is called mother. Father and mother, Durgā.

māyā-saṅga-vikāri rudra-bhinnābhinna rūpa
jīva-tattva haya, nahe kṛṣṇera ‘svarūpa’

And because he has connection with this illusory energy, therefore he is not exactly God. God has nothing to do with this material energy, illusory energy. He is never illusioned. But Śiva, Lord Śiva, he has connection with Durgā, the material energy. Therefore his position is between the living entity and Kṛṣṇa.

Now Lord Caitanya is quoting one verse from Brahma-saṁhitā about the real position of Śiva:

dugdha yena amla-yoge dadhi-rūpa dhare
dugdhāntara vastu nahe, dugdha haite nāre

A very nice example. Just like if you mix up with milk something sour and it turns into yogurt or curd, similarly, the difference between Śiva and Lord Kṛṣṇa is like that. He is Kṛṣṇa, but because he is mixed up with this material energy, therefore he is something like that yogurt. So yogurt, the constitutional position of yogurt is nothing but milk, but it cannot become milk again. Once turned into yogurt, there is no possibility of turning into milk. Neither you can derive the benefit of milk from yogurt. Yogurt is used for some purpose; milk is used for some other purpose. Similarly, those who are worshipers of Śiva, they cannot derive the same benefit as persons who are in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Just like you cannot derive the same benefit by drinking, by taking yogurt. If you require milk, if I supply you yogurt, it will give another, I mean to say, disturbance. Similarly, the distinction is given here, and He is quoting from Brahma-saṁhitā, most authoritative literature in this connection.

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na tu tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
[Bs. 5.45]

Śiva is not different from Kṛṣṇa, but it is added with this material energy. Therefore Śiva has turned into yogurt.

yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryād
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

But somebody is required for destruction, so that destruction part is taken by Śiva, and he is charge of this tamo-guṇa.

‘śiva’-māyā-śakti-saṅgī, tamo-guṇāveśa
māyātīta, guṇātīta ‘viṣṇu’-parameśa

Therefore Viṣṇu and Śiva, the difference is that Viṣṇu is never in touch of this illusory energy, or material energy, but Śiva is in intimate touch with the material energy. That is the difference between Śiva and Viṣṇu.

śivaḥ śakti-yuktaḥ śaśvat
triliṅgo guṇa-saṁvṛtaḥ
vaikārikas taijasaś ca
tāmasaś cety ahaṁ tridhā
harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt
puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ

Now, Hari, Viṣṇu is beyond this material world. That is accepted by Śaṅkarācārya. Nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ avyaktāt. Nārāyaṇa, Hari… Although Śaṅkarācārya is impersonalist, but he has accepted Nārāyaṇa, Hari, the Supreme Lord, as beyond this material infection. Nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ avyaktāt. And he has also agreed to accept Kṛṣṇa. Sa bhagavān svayaṁ kṛṣṇaḥ. That Supreme Personality of Godhead is Kṛṣṇa. It is accepted by Śaṅkarācārya. Those who are reading the commentary by Śaṅkarācārya on the Bhagavad-gītā, he will find in the beginning of that nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ. So it is also confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt: “Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is beyond the touch of this material qualities.” Therefore His body is sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. His body is not made of this tri-guṇa. Our, this material body is made of these three guṇas: sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. Those who have got this body from the modes of goodness, they are called brāhmaṇas, or the most intelligent persons. And those who have got their body from the modes of passion, they are called kṣatriyas. They have got creative initiation. And those who are mixed, they are called vaiśyas, or the mercantile community. And those who have got purely body from modes of ignorance, they are called śūdras. So harir hi… But Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is beyond this. He is transcendental. Harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ.

Prakṛteḥ paraḥ means… Prakṛti means nature. This material nature, He is beyond this material nature. Prakṛteḥ paraḥ.

sa sarva-guṇa upadraṣṭā
taṁ bhajan nirguṇo bhavet

The advantage is that if you want to get release from the infection of these three guṇas, three qualities, then you have to render devotional service to the Lord. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Nirguṇo bhavet. Nirguṇa, when there is mention of nirguṇa, nirguṇa does not mean quality-less. Nirguṇa means without these contaminous three qualities of material nature. There are transcendental qualities. Those transcendental qualities… You have got the list, twenty-six qualities of the devotee. Those are transcendental qualities. Those transcendental qualities are in God as well as in the living entity. But when the living entity comes in contact with material nature, those transcendental qualities are covered by the material qualities. So they are not manifested. But as soon as one becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious, those transcendental qualities automatically develop. Because they are already there.

It is stated that… What is that? The idea is that these qualities are already there. Nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti sādhya kabhu naya. These qualities are not acquired. The transcendental qualities are not acquired. Rather, these material qualities are acquired. But transcendental qualities are there in minute particles. As the transcendental qualities are there in God, similarly, transcendental qualities are in living entities also. But when they are covered by these material qualities, the material qualities which we exhibit in the material world, that is acquired. But transcendental qualities are not acquired. So nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti sādhya kabhu naya. They are not acquired. Śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye udaya. Those transcendental qualities again revive themself by this process: śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte. As you purify your heart by this process of hearing transcendental messages from Godhead, as your heart becomes purified, those transcendental qualities automatically develop. And when fully developed, it is called nirguṇa, nirguṇa, without any material quality. That nirguṇa stage can be obtained, can be achieved, in touch with the nirguṇa, Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it is stated, sa sarva-dṛg upadraṣṭā taṁ bhajan. Bhajan. Bhajan means by rendering devotional service to Him, that Supreme Lord, you get revived your transcendental qualities. And when you revive your transcendental qualities, that means you are liberated, you are happy, you are transferred to the spiritual world.

Thank you very much. Any question? (end)

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