Pradyumna: “Material nature and the living entities should be understood to be beginningless. Their transformations and the modes of matter are products of material nature.”
Prabhupāda: So there were six questions by Arjuna: kṣetra, kṣetra-jña, jñānam, jñeyam, prakṛti, puruṣa. Six questions. So Kṛṣṇa has already replied what is kṣetra, kṣetra-jña, and what is the process of knowledge and what is the object of knowledge. Now He is beginning to explain what is this material nature and what is these living entities.
Material nature, prakṛti, is enjoyable. Prakṛti means enjoyable. And puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer. Just like in our present condition we accept the female as the fair sex, enjoyable. And we, male, we think we are enjoyer. By nature the females, they are by nature apt to dress attractively, and the puruṣa is attracted. So this prakṛti and puruṣa. Actually none of us are puruṣa. This conception of puruṣa, enjoyer, that is there in so-called woman and so-called man. The man also wants to enjoy. Not only man, every living entity, cats, dogs, trees, aquatics, everyone, because this material world means all the living entities, beginning from Lord Brahmā, down to the smallest ant, they are seeking after enjoyment. Puruṣa. That is puruṣa spirit. One who is seeking for enjoyment is called puruṣa. But actual puruṣa is Kṛṣṇa.
We are all prakṛtis. And because, being prakṛti, we are trying to become puruṣa, that is called māyā, or illusion. Just like if a woman dresses like a man and wants to act as man, as that is illusion, similarly, we are differently dressed in the material ingredient, bhūmir āpo ‘nalo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4]. Everyone’s body is made of these five elements and mind, intelligence, they are also subtle material elements, and with this combination we have got this body, and I am the spirit soul. I am trying to enjoy. This is material world. We have forgotten that we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Our business is not to enjoy but to help Kṛṣṇa to enjoy. That is our business, part and parcel.
We have given several times this example, just like these fingers. They are my part and parcel of the body. The finger catches a nice sweetmeat. It is not the business of the fingers to enjoy the sweetmeat, but it gives to the mouth to go to the stomach for enjoyment.
So it is the duty of the part and parcel of God to help Him enjoying. That is bhakti. Bhakti means ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. Anukūla. Anukūla means favorably. Kṛṣṇānuśīlanam, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Always thinking how to make Kṛṣṇa happy. That is bhakti. Ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam. Just like gopīs, the first-class example are the gopīs or the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana. They are all trying to make Kṛṣṇa happy. That is Vṛndāvana. If here also, if you try to make Kṛṣṇa happy, this can be converted into Vṛndāvana, Vaikuṇṭha.
But that attitude we haven’t got. We have got… By the influence of māyā, we have become puruṣa. We want to enjoy. “Why this Kṛṣṇa shall enjoy? I shall enjoy. I am Kṛṣṇa. I am God.” This is going on.
So the enjoyable is this matter, this material world, and the living entities, they are trying to enjoy. They are not actually enjoyer. They are suffering. They are becoming entangled because by this enjoying spirit we are developing different types of mentality, and at the time of death, according to that mentality, I get the next body. That means by this enjoying spirit I am getting entangled. I am not becoming free. If at the time of, if I live like dogs, dog mentality, then naturally at the time of death my mentality will be like a dog and naturally I get a dog’s body. Then I enjoy. The dog is also enjoying. They forget. The animals… The ant is also enjoying, and Lord Brahmā is also enjoying. So this puruṣa spirit is material life.
So that puruṣa… Puruṣa means the living entity. Kṛṣṇa says here that prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva viddhy anādī. Anādī, eternal. It is not temporary; it is eternal. There are five things: the living entities, the prakṛti, God, and the work… There are… Prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva viddhy anādī. Anādī means eternal. It is not created. It is there but it becomes manifested. Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19].
Another example: just like this body, my body, your body. I have got this body; you have got this body. This body will be destroyed. Avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam. But my, that consciousness will not be destroyed. This body will be destroyed, but my consciousness will not be destroyed. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam. Idaṁ tatam. Idam, this body, is spread with consciousness. If you pinch any part of your body, you will become conscious that it is painful. But how long it is painful? So long the soul is there. And as soon as the soul is gone, you chop it with a dagger; it will not respond. Therefore avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam. That thing, that consciousness, is avināśi.
The so-called scientists, they do not know that the consciousness is eternal and it carries me to another body. “I see that this body is destroyed; therefore finish, all finished.” No. You have got practical experience. When you sleep, the body does not work but the consciousness works. You therefore dream in a different atmosphere. You get a different body and enjoy differently. Every day we have got experience. At night I forget this body, and daytime, I forget the dreaming body. So this is also dreaming, at daytime, because I forget. At night I saw that I was a king, I was ruling over somebody, or I was lecturing as a political leader, and daytime I see that I am a clerk, neither politician nor king. So I forget the night’s body, and at night I forget the day’s body.
Similarly, change of body means I forget this body. Last life, I had some body, but I cannot say what kind of body I had. Of course, there is science, astronomy and other things. They can speak, but I don’t believe it. Or even if I believe, what can I do with that? So we are changing. But the consciousness is not vināśi. Avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam. So because the consciousness is not changed, it is creating another body according to consciousness.
Just like we create favorable circumstances to enjoy even in this life. Why this struggle for existence? We are trying to make a favorable condition for enjoyment. This is struggle for existence. Nobody is satisfied with the present position. Everyone is struggling hard. But he does not know that any material arrangement, according to my intelligence, will never make me happy. That we do not know. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, “You rascal, nonsense, give up this business.” Sarva-dharmān parityajya [Bg. 18.66]. “You are rascal number one. You have forgotten your constitutional position. Now you give up all these engagements if you want to be happy.” Mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja. “Just be under My control.” “And what benefit I shall derive?” Ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ: “I’ll give you protection.” Because you’re suffering for your sinful activities… everything is sinful activities. Everything.
Just like a gang of thieves. A gang of thieves, after plundering booties from some gentleman’s house, they came outside the village, and they were dividing. So one of the thieves is saying, “Sir, let us divide it honestly. Let us divide the booty honestly.” Now, their basic principle is dishonesty, and now they want to divide honestly. So all these rascals, politicians, they are all dishonest, and they are trying to make adjustment honestly. Honestly. What is this honesty? There cannot be honesty. Harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇāḥ. Anyone who is not a devotee of the Lord, he cannot be possessing any good qualities. That is not possible. He must be dishonest if he is a not devotee of the Lord. He must be dishonest. This is the verdict of the śāstras.
yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñcanā
sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ
harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇā
mano-rathenāsati dhāvato bahiḥ
Because one who is not in the transcendental plat… [break] So this material nature is also eternal. It is not… As the Māyāvādī philosopher says, “It is mithyā,” jagan mithyā, we don’t say. Why it is mithyā? It is fact. Because Kṛṣṇa says that bhūmir āpo ‘nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā [Bg. 7.4]. Kṛṣṇa says, “It is My prakṛti, My energy.” If Kṛṣṇa is fact, why His energy should be mithyā? This is nonsense. The jagat is not mithyā. We don’t say. If Kṛṣṇa is truth, then this world is also truth. But the fact that Kṛṣṇa is the enjoyer, we are trying to be enjoyer, that is not true. That is mithyā. The jagat is not mithyā, but the propensity to enjoy this world, that is mithyā because we cannot be enjoyer. Kṛṣṇa says,
jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati
If you want śānti, you must learn these three things, that bhoktā, enjoyer, is Kṛṣṇa… We are not enjoyer, but every one of us, we are thinking we are enjoyer, individually, collectively, nationally, socially, communical…, any way, everyone.
kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha hañā bhoga vāñchā kare
nikaṭa-stha māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare
This is a Bengali poetry. It says, “As soon as we forget the real enjoyer and we want to enjoy, immediately that is called māyā.” And as soon as we give up this mentality… That is confirmed by Bhagavad-gītā.
māṁ ca yo ‘vyabhicāreṇa
sa guṇān samatītyaitān
As soon as you give up this mentality, that “I am the enjoyer,” as soon as we change our mentality, that “Kṛṣṇa is enjoyer,” then immediately we become liberated. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate, sa guṇān samatītyaitān [Bg. 14.26].
Here it also said, vikārāṁś ca guṇāṁś caiva viddhi prakṛti-sambhavān. We have become servant of the three guṇas, three qualities of this material world. Somebody is very proud of becoming good, goodness, like brāhmaṇa quality. That is good. In the material world that is first-class quality. The second-class quality, passionate, very active. All people are very active for enjoyment, passionate. And some people are in ignorance. They do not know what is goodness and what is passion. They can simply waste their time by laziness and sleeping. Sleeping. So actually we are all sleeping because we do not know what is the aim of life. At night we sleep. We forget that “what is my duty, what is my business, what I have to do.” Everything we forget.
Similarly, so long we are in ignorance, that is our sleeping stage. Therefore the Vedic mantra is uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata. “Now you have got this human form of life. Do not sleep like animals, cats and dogs. Get up!” That is Vedic injunction. Tamaso mā jyotir gama: “Don’t remain in this darkness. Just come forward to the jyoti.” Jyoti means… That is also explained in the Bhagavad-gītā.
na tad bhāsayate sūryo
na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ
yad gatvā na nivartante
tad dhāma paramaṁ mama
Everything is there. Here you require the sunlight, the moonlight, the electricity, but there is another nature, paras tasmāt tu bhāvaḥ anyo ‘vyakto ‘vyaktāt sanātanaḥ [Bg. 8.20]. There there is no need of sun, there is no need of moon, because each and every planet is illuminating. Yad gatvā na nivartante. And if you go there, then you do not come back again in this material world, which is duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam, nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ saṁsiddhiṁ paramāṁ gatāḥ [Bg. 8.15].
So our aim should be how to go back to home, back to Godhead. But we do not know. We are simply acting like cats and dogs, that’s all. Jumping like dog, cat, and eating, sleeping, and having sex intercourse and trying to defend my position. These things are done by the animals. These things are done by animals. Then what is your benefit you get, this human form of life? Śāstra says,
nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke
kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye
tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena sattvaṁ
śuddhyed yasmād brahma-saukhyaṁ tv anantam
“This human form of life is not meant for working very hard like cats and dogs. It is meant for tapasya. Tapasya, simple life, and realize yourself. And then you stop the miserable condition of your life. Tapo divyaṁ yena śuddhyet sattvam.
Just like when we are diseased, we go to the physician and we try to cure the disease, similarly, we do not know what is our main disease. That is explained by Kṛṣṇa previously. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi [Bg. 13.9]—this is our real disease, to take birth, to die, to become old and to become victims of disease. But nobody knows how to cure this, and still, we are very much proud of becoming advanced in education and civilization. This is called illusion. This is called illusion. The real disease is how to stop janma-mṛtyu.
Kṛṣṇa has repeatedly said, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ: [Bg. 4.9] “Simply try to understand Me, Kṛṣṇa. The result will be tyaktvā deham…” That is… After giving up this body we have to accept another body. Kṛṣṇa says, “Simply if you understand Me in truth, then thereafter, no more accepting any material body. You remain in your spiritual body and come to the spiritual world, back to home, back to Godhead.”
So here prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva. Although prakṛti is also Kṛṣṇa’s nature, bhūmir āpo ‘nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhiḥ [Bg. 7.4]. He said, apareyam: “This is inferior nature.” So apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām: “Another superior nature there is.” What is that? Jīva-bhūtaḥ: “this living entity.” So we are also prakṛti, and the material nature is also prakṛti. It is inferior prakṛti, and we are superior prakṛti. As we are now under the control of this inferior prakṛti, we can transfer ourself under the control of the superior prakṛti. That superior prakṛti is spiritual world. This material world means it is made of this inferior prakṛti, bhūmir āpo ‘nalo vāyuḥ.
And there is another prakṛti, sanātana. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. You’ll find in the eighth chapter. Paras tasmāt tu bhāvaḥ anyaḥ [Bg. 8.20]. Bhāva means nature. Avyakto ‘vyaktāt sanātanaḥ. Sanātanaḥ means that is not destroyed. And this prakṛti is destroyed. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. So bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate means that prakṛti is fact, but the manifestation is temporary. It is not false.
Just like you become sometimes angry, so you show some symptoms. That symptom is within you, but it is manifested sometimes. Sometimes it is not manifested. But the propensity, the quality of your becoming angry, is there eternally. It is not that it is created. Anything… Sometimes you become passionate. To become passionate is there, it is not a new thing, but it sometimes appears, sometimes disappears.
Similarly, this material world… This is also prakṛti of Kṛṣṇa. The fact is that it is sometimes manifest, sometimes not manifest. Just like the cloud. Cloud is a fact, but sometimes it is manifest; sometimes it is not manifested. When it is not manifest, you cannot say, “Cloud is false.” No. It is a fact, but the nature is sometimes manifest, sometimes not manifest. So here Kṛṣṇa says, prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva viddhy anādī. They are eternal. Kṛṣṇa is eternal, and the living entities are eternal, and the prakṛtis are also eternal. They are not false. But they are manifested, sometimes not manifested.
And when we do not like to obey Kṛṣṇa we cannot live in the spiritual world. In the spiritual world there is no such thing, disobedience. There is always… They are all devotees. Just like in Vṛndāvana. They are all devotees of Kṛṣṇa. Somebody is serving Kṛṣṇa as father and mother, Nanda Mahārāja, Yaśodā, and somebody is serving as friend; somebody is serving as servant; somebody is serving as conjugal lover. In this way there are five kinds of service, mellows, whatever you like. Everybody is not like… There is taste. “I like to serve Kṛṣṇa as a conjugal lover.” “I like to love Kṛṣṇa as my son.” “I like to love Kṛṣṇa as my friend.” “I like to love Kṛṣṇa as my master.” “I simply love Kṛṣṇa by glorifying Him.”
These are pañca, five kinds of rasas, śānta, dāsya, sākhya, vātsalya, mādhurya. So you can select any one of them, because there must be varieties. Because we are living entities, everyone, we want to enjoy. Therefore variety is the mother of enjoyment. You cannot make everything impersonal, no. There is varieties. Even in the spiritual world there is varieties. That varieties are reflected in this material world. Therefore here also, we love somebody as friend; we love somebody as wife; we love somebody as father; we love somebody as mother, like that. The same thing is pervertedly reflected. And because it is illusion, therefore you are not satisfied.
If you want real love, real position, then you have to transfer your, these loving propensities in five different kinds of mellows to Kṛṣṇa. Then it will be permanent, and you’ll be happy.
Don’t reject this as, because you could not capture the grapes, then the grapes and the jackals. The jackal… You know that story. The jackal went to steal some grapes in the orchard, and it was very high. He jumped over several times. He could not get it. Then he rejected, “Oh, this is sour. I don’t want it.”
Similarly, this Māyāvādī philosophy is like that. First of all he wants to become very big man, very big businessman, minister, this, that, to enjoy, simply enjoy, competition of enjoyment. But when he’s baffled, when he did not enjoy, simply suffered—he comes to his knowledge that “I could not enjoy; I simply suffered”—then “It is mithyā. Grapes are sour.” That philosophy will not do. You must know that this prakṛti, this material world, you are not enjoyer. The enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa. Sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29].
If you want to become enjoyer, then you are thief. Stena eva sa ucyate [Bg. 3.12]. Yajñārthe karmaṇo ‘nyatra loko ‘yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ [Bg. 3.9]. You cannot be happy with stolen property. So everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa, īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1]. Whatever we are trying to enjoy, it is stolen property. The philosophy is tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā. You can enjoy whatever is allotted to you by Kṛṣṇa. Tene tyak… Mā gṛdhaḥ kasya svid dhanam. Don’t try to encroach upon other’s property. This is real proposition for peace and prosperity. But we are trying to become the biggest enjoyer, and we are trying to encroach upon others’ property, others’ life, others’ jurisdiction. Therefore there is no peace. There cannot be peace.
Therefore if we want peace at all, this is the formula. Bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram, suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām [Bg. 5.29]. Kṛṣṇa is the suhṛt; He is well-wisher of everyone. Therefore he comes, because he is well-wisher of all living entities, because living entities are His sons. Everyone… Father is always well-wisher of the son. So we are trying to enjoy here falsely, which we cannot do. Therefore Kṛṣṇa comes to give us advice. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. Otherwise the struggle for existence will go on and you’ll never be happy. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)