Pradyumna: (leads synonyms)
jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi
yaj jñātvā ‘mṛtam aśnute
anādimat paraṁ brahma
na sat tan nāsad ucyate
“I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless, and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahman, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.”
Prabhupāda: So this chapter is explanation of the knower and knowledge… The knowledge, the chapter has already explained, in order to make progress in the line of knowledge there were about twenty items: amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṁsā kṣāntir arjavam [Bg. 13.8]. These are the process, not to become falsely proud of possessing knowledge. There are symptoms that who is actually in knowledge and those symptoms have been explained. Amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṁsā kṣāntir ārjavam. The most important… Of course, all the items are very important. Still, approaching the ācārya… [break] …portion of Kṛṣṇa. Racayituṁ jagad-aṇḍa-koṭim. One portion, Paramātmā. That Paramātmā portion is the Mahā-Viṣṇu, Mahā-Viṣṇu lying on the Kāraṇārṇava, the Causal Ocean.
jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ
viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
That Mahā-Viṣṇu is lying on the Causal Ocean beyond this universe, on the border, there is a big ocean which is called Causal Ocean, kāraṇodaka-jala. And there is Mahā-Viṣṇu lying, and from His breathing process, yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ [Bs. 5.48]. Jagad-aṇḍa-nātha means Brahmā. So that portion, eko ‘py asau racayitum, He is the origin of universal, this material creation. Kāraṇārṇavaśāyī Viṣṇu. From Him, the Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu comes out, and He enters in each and every universes. Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. That Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu again expands as Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. That Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu is within this universe. In each and every universe there is Viṣṇu, Śvetadvīpa-loka where Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu is there, and that Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu enters within the heart of all living entities, Paramātmā, Antaryāmī.
That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā, eko ‘py asau racayituṁ jagad-aṇḍa-koṭiṁ yac-chaktir asti jagad-aṇḍa-cayā yad-antaḥ aṇḍāntara-stha… [Bs. 5.35]. He is not only within this universe, but He is also within the atom. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara… Paramāṇu means atom. In this way Lord Viṣṇu is expanded, and He is jñeyam, He is to be understood. Jñāna, knowledge, simply material knowledge, is not perfection of knowledge. Real knowledge is to understand the Supreme Absolute Truth, Viṣṇu. That is real knowledge. That is explained here. Jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi: “I shall now explain to you what is the ultimate goal of knowledge.” In other place, in the Fifteenth Chapter also, Kṛṣṇa said,
sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo
mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca
vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ…
Kṛṣṇa is within everyone’s heart, sarvasya ca ahaṁ hṛdi. This place, the particular place is also mentioned there. Hṛdi, in the heart, He’s there. Sanniviṣṭaḥ. And from Him, mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca. From Him, our remembrance, smṛtir jñānam, knowledge, and forgetfulness—everything is coming from Him. Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca. Therefore, vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. One has to understand Kṛṣṇa by studying Vedic literature. If he’s missing Kṛṣṇa, then śrama eva hi kevalam, he’s missing Kṛṣṇa. That is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam,
dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ
notpādayed yadi ratiṁ
śrama eva hi kevalam
Everyone has got particular type of occupational duty. That is called dharma. Dharma is not a faith. The particular duty… Just like you are a medical practitioner. So your dharma is to treat patients. That is your dharma. So everyone has got particular occupational duty. [break] Actually, what is going on as Hindu dharma… Actually, Hindu dharma this word is not there in the śāstras. In the śāstra it is called varṇāśrama-dharma. Four varṇas: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra; and four āśramas: brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and sannyāsa. These are called varṇāśrama-dharma. So in every varṇa, brāhmaṇa, his qualification is described in the śāstra. Śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ kṣāntir jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.42]. Similarly, kṣatriya, vaiśya. So by discharging one’s occupational duty according to varṇa and āśrama, if one does not understand Kṛṣṇa, the Bhāgavata says, śrama eva hi kevalam. Then he’s simply spoiling his time and wasting his labor. That’s all.
dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ
notpādayed yadi ratiṁ
śrama eva hi kevalam
This is the verdict of Vedic literature. He’s simply laboring for nothing. One must know Kṛṣṇa-viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ. Viṣvaksena, another name of Kṛṣṇa, or Viṣṇu, is viṣvaksena-kathā. Just like we are speaking about Kṛṣṇa, nobody is interested to come here. Nobody is interested. Viṣvaksena-kathāsu notpādayed ratim. They will say, “Oh, I am busy with my occupational duty.” But the human form of life is meant for increasing your interest in the matter of viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ. This means kṛṣṇa-kathā.
This is the mission of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya, His mission is this: He said,
yāre dekha tāre kaha ‘kṛṣṇa’-upadeśa
āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra’ ei deśa
[Cc. Madhya 7.128]
Kṛṣṇa-upadeśa. He says, Caitanya Mahāprabhu, that “On My order, every one of My devotees, become a spiritual master.” Āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra’ ei deśa [Cc. Madhya 7.128]. “You become a spiritual master and deliver all the people.” By kṛṣṇa-upadeśa, you can deliver. People are suffering. Here also, the same thing is said. Jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā ‘mṛtam aśnute. Amṛtam. People are suffering. They do not know what is amṛtatva. So ‘mṛtatvāya kalpate. This is the aim of life, to become immortal. That is wanted. One has to come to that platform of knowledge when one can achieve the perfection of life, amṛtatva, immortality.
So Kṛṣṇa says here that jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi: “The ultimate goal of knowledge I will explain to you. Yaj jñātvā: “If you can understand that knowledge, then,” amṛtam aśnute, “if anyone can understand that knowledge, he becomes immortal.” That is the problem. The process of knowledge… In that chapter it is already said that janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam [Bg. 13.9]. The subject matter should be how to understand or how to get relief from the repetition of birth and death, old age and disease. This is knowledge. And here also Kṛṣṇa says again, anyone who comes to the ultimate goal of knowledge, then he becomes immortal.
Anādimat paraṁ brahma. Brahma, brahma-jñāna. The brahma-jñāna without knowledge of Kṛṣṇa is not perfect knowledge. Generally, people are interested… (aside:) Give me water. In the impersonal Brahman, but without knowledge of Kṛṣṇa that impersonal feature of Kṛṣṇa, brahma-jñāna, is also insufficient. They do not… That is not sufficient knowledge. Tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam. Philosophical speculation or discussion should be to reach the ultimate goal of life. Tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam. That is already explained. And what is that tattva? That is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, what is tattva. Vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam [SB 1.2.11]. Tattva-vid, one who knows tattva, he can speak about tattva. Tattva means the Absolute Truth. So vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam. That thing is spoken as tattva, as the truth, by persons who are tattva-vid. Tattva-vid means one who knows the tattva. Unless one knows the thing, how he can explain? Therefore we have to understand the Absolute Truth from a person who knows it. Vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam [SB 1.2.11]. That knowledge is absolute, advayam, no relativity, absolute.
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
bhagavān iti śabdyate
That truth is explained as Brahman, as Paramātmā, or as Bhagavān. The same thing. Just like we see the sun. The sun is a planet and there is a sun-god. Just like we have got also in each and every planet one chief person. Here we have got president. Formerly there was one president or king on this planet. Now they have now so many presidents. But according to God’s plan, there is one president or king in each and every planet. So in the sun planet there is also one king or one chief person. His name is also given in the Bhagavad-gītā, Vivasvān. If you accept Bhagavad-gītā, then you have to accept all these things. You cannot make minus anything. That is not knowledge of Bhagavad-gītā.
Therefore we are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is. We cannot use the ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya [Cc. Ādi-līlā 5.176]—half. I take half of the hen. I take the rear part, and the front part I reject. This kind of logic, argument, will not be very successful. You have to take as it is, in toto, and you have to understand That is understanding of Bhagavad-gītā. If you take something to your choice, that is useless, useless waste of time. Just like Mahatma Gandhi, he wanted to prove from Bhagavad-gītā nonviolence. How it is possible? Bhagavad-gītā is spoken in the battlefield. So in this way, if we try to understand Bhagavad-gītā, it will be not Bhagavad-gītā, it will be something else. We must understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is. That is our preaching method. We are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is all over the world. So we accept.
The modern theory, scientific theory, is that “The sun planet is only blazing fire. There cannot be any living entity.” No, we don’t believe that. Because śāstra says that “The living entity is never burned.” Acchedyo ‘yam adāhyo ‘yam. Adāhyaḥ. Just like we sterilize by putting into the fire, but that does not mean the living entity is dead. No. Adāhyo ‘yam: “It cannot be burned into fire.” Acchedyo ‘yam: “It cannot be cut into pieces.” This information we get from Bhagavad-gītā. So in the sun planet, although it is blazing fire, there are living entities. They have got a particular type of body. That particular type of body is fiery. Just like you have got living entities in the sea. There are hundreds and thousands. Jalajā nava-lakṣāṇi. There are nine lakhs, species of aquatic animals. But they are living in the water. They have got particular type of body. You cannot say, because you cannot live within the water, you cannot say, “No, no, there cannot be any living entity.” This is nonsense. The living entities, another name is sarva-ga. He can live everywhere. It is not a fact that living entities live only in certain particular place. No. Sarva-ga, anywhere in God’s creation there are living entities. This is shastric vision.
So in the sun planet also, there are living entities, cities, just like here. Otherwise how Kṛṣṇa can say, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam [Bg. 4.1]. Kṛṣṇa is telling lie, that “I spoke this science of Bhagavad-gītā to the sun-god?” Now, according to our calculation nobody can go to the sun planet, and where is the scope of speaking there, and to whom speaking? But Kṛṣṇa says, “Yes.” Imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham [Bg. 4.1], “I said,” avyayam, “imperishable knowledge.” Vivasvān manave prāha. So from this version we can understand, in the sun planet there are living entities, and the chief man, or chief demigod, is the sun-god, whose name is Vivasvān. So his body must be fiery; otherwise how he can live there? And the inhabitants there also. So we are thinking from here that nobody can live there, but that’s not the fact. We are calculating via our own experience. Therefore we cannot have perfect knowledge by speculating our experience. It is not possible. We must go to a person whose experience is beyond our experience. That is called guru. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet [MU 1.2.12]. Guru means heavy. If guru is as good as I am, then what is the use of taking knowledge from him? Guru must be heavier.
So who can become more heavier than Kṛṣṇa? Mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7]. There is nobody heavier. And Kṛṣṇa proved it when He was a child. When He was a boy of seven years old He proved how heavy, that He lifted the Govardhana Hill, and it rested on Kṛṣṇa’s finger continually for seven days. Just imagine how heavy He is. So in this way we have to understand Kṛṣṇa. And if we understand Kṛṣṇa from that spirit, from that angle of vision, then we become perfect. As it is said here, jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā ‘mṛtam aśnute. You become immortal. This is confirmed in the Fourth Chapter. Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ. If you simply understand Kṛṣṇa in truth, not superficially, but in fact, then what is the result? The result is tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]. Punar janma, punar janma, next, again if I take a material body, then again I’ll have to die. Anyone who has got this material body, he has to die. Janma-mṛtyu. One who is born, he must die. But here Kṛṣṇa says, punar janma naiti. “No more birth.” Then there is no more death. Because if there is birth, there is death, and if there is no birth, there is no death. That is immortality, amṛta. That is amṛtatva. So amṛtatvāya kalpate. In another place Kṛṣṇa says,
yaṁ hi na vyathayanty ete
so ‘mṛtatvāya kalpate
We are disturbed by the bodily concepts of life, every one of us. Everyone is busy how to relieve the bodily pains and pleasures. That’s all. The real pains and pleasure: that the living entity who has accepted this material body, he has to continue these pains and pleasure. That is explained in the Bhagavad, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi [Bg. 13.9]. So you there is no science to give relief from janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi. How can expect relief? It is temporary relief. So Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, we should not be disturbed by the temporary pains and pleasure.
mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya
tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata
We should not be disturbed by these so-called bodily pains and pleasure. We can try, we can get as much… But this is not our business. Our business is how to get out of these clutches of birth and death. That is real business. That they do not know. Because they have no knowledge. All fools and rascals, they are busy for the temporary pains and pleasure. That’s all.
So here it is said, jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā ‘mṛtam aśnute. That is knowledge. “I shall speak to you about that supreme knowledge.” That supreme knowledge means if you simply try to understand Kṛṣṇa, janma karma me divyam [Bg. 4.9], why Kṛṣṇa appears, janma karma, why He works like an ordinary human being… He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Why he takes part in these ordinary activities? Just like Kṛṣṇa took part in the Battle of Kurukṣetra. He’s Supreme Personality of Godhead; why should He take part in the battleground? Yes this is…, somebody, some section of people, they question like this. But He has his business. Because He comes, He has got His business. He says, dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge: “I come. My business is to reestablish the principle of life, religion.”
Human life means religion. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. The cats and dogs, they have no religion. But if the human being has no religion, then he is no better than the cat and dog. Therefore all over the world, either he’s a European or American or Indian or Canadian or Russian, everyone has got some religion. It doesn’t matter whether it is Hinduism, Muslimism or Christianism. Because human society without religious conception—religious conception means to understand God—he’s animal. Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ. So gradually, the whole world is becoming animal because they are rejecting religion. They are rejecting religion. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge. Because these rascals, they give up religion and become animals and fight between themselves and make the whole world a confusion and chaos, therefore it is required that Kṛṣṇa comes. Dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya. This is His duty. He has no duty, but it is His mercy that He comes. Dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya.
And what is that dharma? In the Bhāgavata it is explained, dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam [SB 6.3.19]. You cannot manufacture a religious sect. That is rascaldom. Just like if you think, “I shall manufacture law at my home,” is it possible? Who will care for your law? If the law is enacted by the state, that is accepted. The government says, “Keep to the left.” You have to accept it. You cannot say, “No, why not to the right?” Then you’ll be criminal. Similarly, laws means given by the government, and dharma means which is the codes given by God. That is dharma. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam [SB 6.3.19]. That is religion. And Kṛṣṇa says, dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge: “I come to reestablish. When people become cats and dogs without any religion, then I come down to establish religion.” Because we are Kṛṣṇa’s sons, we are all sons of Kṛṣṇa, He is very much anxious to see us happy. Just like father wants to see his sons, bewildered sons, to see that he is happy. Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. That is also the same thing. To deliver the righteous person and to kill the demons, the same thing, because Kṛṣṇa is absolute. His maintaining the devotee and killing the demon, both of them are same thing.
Just like father. Father is giving some child, some son, nice sweetmeat, and the other son comes, “No you cannot take it.” Does it mean that father is partial? No, father is kind both the child. He knows that he cannot eat. So similarly, two things are going on parallel. Some are punishments, some are maintenance by the laws of God, but he knows how to do it. We have to accept His law. That is… Tat te ‘nukampāṁ su-samīkṣamāṇaḥ [SB 10.14.8]. Therefore a devotee is never disturbed by the so-called pains and pleasure of this world. He is never disturbed. He knows his duty, how to execute Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is real devotee. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam [Bg. 18.66].
So Kṛṣṇa said that dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge. Then what is that dharma? He did not come here to reestablish Hinduism or Muslimism or Christianism. No. He came to give you real dharma. What is that? Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. That is dharma, to surrender unto Kṛṣṇa: “Kṛṣṇa, I am eternally Your servant. I forgot You. Now I come to my senses. I surrender unto You.” This is dharma. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. This sense, real sense, comes when after struggling, struggling for many, many births, one becomes wise. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān. Jñānavān means wise. Not fools and rascals. Jñānavān māṁ prapadyate: “He surrenders unto Me.” So anyone who is surrendering to Kṛṣṇa, taking to Kṛṣṇa or devotional service fully, he is the most intelligent man. He’s not cats and dogs or rascals. Because Kṛṣṇa says, jñānavān. This is real knowledge. That will be explained.
Kṛṣṇa says, jñeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi “I shall speak to you what is the object of knowledge, ultimate objective of knowledge.” Yaj jñātvā ‘mṛtam aśnute. If one can understand Kṛṣṇa he gets eternal life. That is our aim of life. Not to remain within this material world, bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19], take birth once and again die. This is done by the cats and dogs. Any animal, they do not know anything. They take birth and again die. Dehino ‘smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ [Bg. 2.13]. You have to accept. So if in ignorance I take birth and again die, what is this life? Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. That is no knowledge. Spoiling. This human form of life is the boon where you can make a solution simply by understanding Kṛṣṇa. Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]. This is knowledge, how to become immortal, how to understand Kṛṣṇa, how to go back to home, back to Godhead. That is the mission of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)