Pradyumna: Translation: “Then Bhīṣma, the great valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty, the grandfather of the fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly like the sound of a lion, giving Duryodhana joy.” [Bg. 1.12]
Prabhupāda: So Duryodhana was doubting that “My grandfather, Bhīṣma, is more affectionately inclined to the other party. So he may not be lenient in fighting.” So in order to encourage Duryodhana, tasya sañjanayan harṣam. “Don’t think that I am lenient. I am strong.” Immediately, to encourage him, he blew his conchshell. Nowadays they use bugle. Formerly the conchshells were used by the kings.
And not that in modern days the fighting takes place—the poor soldiers, they come to fight, and the leaders, they remain in safety place. It is not like that. All of them came out, kṣatriya. Bhīṣmadeva came, Duryodhana came, Arjuna came. And face to face, they had to fight. Not that the poor soldiers would fight and they would remain in a secure place, no. So tasya sañjanayan harṣaṁ kuru-vṛddhaḥ. Kuru-vṛddha, the oldest man in the dynasty, Kuru dynasty, pitāmaha, he’s the grandfather of Arjuna and Duryodhana. The Dhṛtarāṣṭra’s elder uncle, his father’s elder brother. He was very old man, brahmacārī, and in that old age also, he was taking the risk of fighting. This is kṣatriya spirit. Not that only… Dhṛtarāṣṭra was escaping. Not escaping, because he was physically incapable, blind, therefore he did not come in the battlefield. Otherwise even Bhīṣmadeva, in such old age he also came. This is kṣatriya spirit. When there is fight, there is no rest. And fight means “Either the other party should be killed or I shall be killed.” Not that without any decision the fighting will be stopped. No, that cannot be. When there is two parties, must be belligerent, one party. So decision is that “Either you kill me or I kill you.” Not that without killing… “Without being killed one of us, the fighting cannot be stopped.”
Just like Jarāsandha was fighting with Bhīma. During daytime the fighting was going on, and at night Bhīma was a guest of Jarāsandha. As guest is honored, respected, all the parties… But during daytime the fighting was going on. And this fighting went on for twenty-eight days. Still, there was no decision. Then Kṛṣṇa gave hint, Bhīmasena, that “Jarāsandha has got a defect. He is joined, two bodies joined. So if you bifurcate him, then he will be killed.” So later on Bhīmasena took that policy, and Jarāsandha was killed.
So amongst the kṣatriyas when there is fighting, unless one party is killed, the fighting cannot be stopped. This is the Battle of Kurukṣetra, to see the history of the former kings and kṣatriyas, how they were determined. This is one of the qualifications of kṣatriya: not to go away from the fighting. When there is challenge of fighting, immediately a kṣatriya would accept. That is kṣatriya spirit. Īśvara-bhāvaṁ ca, and ruling over others. And charitable. These are the symptoms of kṣatriya.
They are described in the Bhagavad-gītā, brāhmaṇa qualification, kṣatriya qualification, vaiśya qualification, śūdra qualification. So… Very nice arrangement, Vedic civilization. Everyone is guided by the superior. The brāhmaṇa guides the kṣatriyas, the kṣatriya guides the vaiśyas, and the vaiśya employs the śūdras. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. In this way, four divisions of brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, they manage the whole society so nicely. The kṣatriyas, as the kṣatriya’s business was to give protection to the citizens, similarly, vaiśya’s duty was to give protection to the animals. Kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.44].
Vaiśya, they should engage themselves in agricultural production and giving protection to the cows, especially mentioned, go-rakṣya. Go-rakṣya, cow protection, is one of the items of state affairs. And now there is no cow protection. Poor cows, they deliver milk, and later on they become slaughtered. How much sinful the modern society is, and they still want peace and prosperity. That is not possible. The society must be divided—brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra—and they must execute their proper duty. And the vaiśyas, they should give protection to the cows. And the śūdras, they should work under the direction of the higher three divisions. In this way there will be nice management.
Then, as it is stated during the reign of Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, kāmaṁ vavarṣa parjanyaḥ [SB 1.10.4]. Then nature also will help. If you keep things all right, according to the direction, then nature also will help you. Nature will give you sufficient foodstuff. Vavarṣa parjanyaḥ, kāmam. Whatever the necessities of life, it will be supplied by nature simply by proper pouring of water, vṛṣṭi. Actually, now the whole world is suffering for drought. There is scarcity of rain. And if the rain is stopped for one or two years more, there will be havoc. It is already there, havoc. In India there is famine, because they are more, mostly agriculturists. So there is famine. In other countries they have got industries. But India is not so industrially advanced. So without water, nothing can be produced.
Therefore during Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira’s time, kāmaṁ vavarṣa parjanyaḥ [SB 1.10.4]. Yajñād bhavati parjanyaḥ [Bg. 3.14]. If you want sufficient water, then you must perform yajña. These are the indications, direction of the Vedic wisdom. So at the present moment no other yajña is possible. The only yajña, saṅkīrtana-yajña, is possible. Yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtana-prāyair yajanti hi su-medhasaḥ [SB 11.5.32]. So if this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is taken seriously all over the world and they perform saṅkīrtana-yajña, everything will be adjusted immediately. Everything. But these rascals will not take it. They will suffer. Otherwise all directions are there. People have to take the advantage of direction, perfect direction, without any mistake, and they will be happy. So we are trying to introduce this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement so that people may come to their senses, take advantage of it and be happy. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)